The parent-report version includes items regarding the frequency (1 = never, 5 = almost every day) with which parents use 18 particular discipline behaviors (e.g., spanking, shaming, taking away privileges). Questions regarding how frequently other parents use each discipline strategy (rated on a 5-point scale ranging from “never” to “almost every day”) were added to assess cultural normativeness of the behaviors. Parents are also asked to rate how much they approve of each discipline strategy and how effective each strategy would be in getting a child to behave in the future.
In the child-report version of this measure, children are asked about their own parents’ and other parents’ use of 18 different types of discipline on a measure comparable to the adult version but worded for children, with separate responses about each parent.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., & Sorbring, E. (2005). Cultural differences in the effects of physical punishment. In M. Rutter & M. Tienda (Eds.), Ethnicity and causal mechanisms (pp. 204-226). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huang, L., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Deater-Deckard, K., Di Giunnta, L., , Bombi, A. S., Bornstein, M. H., Chang, L., Dodge, K. A., Oburu, P., Pastorelli, C., Skinner, A. T., Sorbring, E., Tapanya, S., Uribe Tirado, L. M., Zelli, A., Alampay, L., Al-Hassan, S. M., & Bacchini, D. (2012). Measurement invariance of mother reports of discipline in different cultural contexts. Family Science, 2, 212-219.
Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Oburu, P., Palmérus, K., Bacchini, D., Pastorelli, C., Bombi, A. S., Zelli, A., Tapanya, S., Chaudhary, N., Deater-Deckard, K., Manke, B., & Quinn, N. (2005). Cultural normativeness as a moderator of the link between physical discipline and children’s adjustment: A comparison of China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Child Development, 76, 1234-1246
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