Child adjustment was measured using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by parents and the Youth Self Report (YSR) completed by the child participants. The Achenbach measures have been translated into at least 69 languages, and over 5,000 published studies have used this measure with at least 60 cultural groups. Aside from the measures’ widespread use in different countries, several researchers have specifically demonstrated good psychometric properties and cross-cultural and cross-language equivalence of the measures across cultural groups. These items captured behaviors such as argues a lot, screams a lot, worries, is disobedient at home, and threatens people. Each item measured the frequency a child participated in a particular behavior: never (coded as 0), sometimes (coded as 1), or often (coded as 2). This measure includes both an internalizing and externalizing scale.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL 14-18, YSR, and TRF Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.