Parent discipline practices were assessed using parent reports on items developed by UNICEF for their Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. UNICEF selected the items by convening an international panel of 25 experts to identify candidate items from existing valid and reliable measures of caregiving; field testing candidate items via cognitive interviews and quantitative surveys in the Americas, South Asia, and Africa; and convening a second international panel of 27 experts to evaluate items’ performance within and across diverse cultures and settings. The items that resulted from this process were adapted from the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the WorldSAFE survey questionnaire.
United Nations Children’s Fund Division of Policy and Planning. Multiple indicator cluster survey manual 2005: Monitoring the situation of children and women; United Nations Children’s Fund: New York, NY, USA, 2006.