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Sustained Attention Across the Life Span in a Sample of 10,000: Dissociating Ability and Strategy

Normal and abnormal differences in sustained visual attention have long been of interest to scientists, educators, and clinicians. Still lacking, however, is a clear understanding of how sustained visual attention varies across the broad sweep of the human life span. In the present study, we filled this gap in two ways. First, using an unprecedentedly [...]

By | 2016-12-21T23:35:40+00:00 September 9th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

A Second Look at Automatic Theory of Mind: Reconsidering Kovacs, Teglas, and Endress (2010)

In recent work, Kovács, Téglás, and Endress (2010) argued that human adults automatically represented other agents’ beliefs even when those beliefs were completely irrelevant to the task being performed. In a series of 13 experiments, we replicated these previous findings but demonstrated that the effects found arose from artifacts in the experimental paradigm. In particular, [...]

By | 2015-09-09T15:22:32+00:00 September 9th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic-Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking

People produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems after receiving an episodic-specificity induction—brief training in recollecting details of a recent event—than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic-specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, [...]

By | 2015-09-09T15:22:32+00:00 September 9th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Facial Trustworthiness Predicts Extreme Criminal-Sentencing Outcomes

Untrustworthy faces incur negative judgments across numerous domains. Existing work in this area has focused on situations in which the target’s trustworthiness is relevant to the judgment (e.g., criminal verdicts and economic games). Yet in the present studies, we found that people also overgeneralized trustworthiness in criminal-sentencing decisions when trustworthiness should not be judicially relevant, [...]

By | 2016-12-21T23:35:40+00:00 August 5th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Cognitive Training Can Reduce Civilian Casualties in a Simulated Shooting Environment

Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of cognitive abilities. For example, locating an item or a person of interest requires visual search, and firing the weapon (or withholding a trigger squeeze) involves response execution (or inhibition). The present study used a simulated shooting environment to establish a relationship between a particular cognitive ability and [...]

By | 2016-12-21T23:35:40+00:00 August 5th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks

Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim’s sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school [...]

By | 2015-08-05T11:26:44+00:00 August 5th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Using Nonnaive Participants Can Reduce Effect Sizes

Although researchers often assume their participants are naive to experimental materials, this is not always the case. We investigated how prior exposure to a task affects subsequent experimental results. Participants in this study completed the same set of 12 experimental tasks at two points in time, first as a part of the Many Labs replication [...]

By | 2015-07-14T08:00:40+00:00 July 14th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Modality and Morphology: What We Write May Not Be What We Say

Written language is an evolutionarily recent human invention; consequently, its neural substrates cannot be determined by the genetic code. How, then, does the brain incorporate skills of this type? One possibility is that written language is dependent on evolutionarily older skills, such as spoken language; another is that dedicated substrates develop with expertise. If written [...]

By | 2015-06-03T23:00:53+00:00 June 3rd, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments